salbutamol sulphate inhaler). The route of administration of a medication directly affects the drug bioavailability, which determines both the onset and the duration of the pharmacological effect. Drugs may be inhaled as gases (e.g., nitrous oxide) and enter the bloodstream by diffusing across the alveolar membrane. ). Oral agents must be able to withstand the acidic environment of the stomach and must permeate the gut lining before entering the bloodstream. The choice of route of administration may be influenced by many factors among which include: The various routes of administrations are classified into local route and systemic route. Parenteral administration is a route of drug administration devoid of oral route. January 2018; DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-99593-9_6. For a drug to produce its desired therapeutic effect, it must come in contact with the tissues of organs and cells of tissues by one way or the other; and for this to take place the drug must be administered in the â¦ Otic Route Intravenous Route. Parenteral route refers to any route other than gastrointestinal, but is commonly used to indicate … Most drugs that are given orally are absorbed into the circulation from the gastrointestinal tract very efficiently within the limits of the physicochemical properties of the drug concerned. These routes are called as routes of medication administration. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/drugs/data-standards-manual-monographs/route-administration [Accessed on 01/10/2020]. It can be used as a drug delivery route for both. prochlorperazine maleate, The taste of the buccal dosage form may not be liked by the patient, Immediate effect (suitable for emergencies), Achieves predictable and precise control over drug plasma levels compared to other routes, Requires trained medical/nursing staff to administer, Once injected, the drug cannot be recalled, Labour intensive and time-consuming e.g. You will get here Advantages and disadvantages of routes of drug administration. KnowledgeDose strives to help support healthcare professionals, trainees and university students in their everyday practices, studies and professional development. The route of administration is the way through which the dosage form is administered into the body for treatment of various diseases and disorders. Intravenous Route However, drugs that are absorbed into the circulation after local administration may then have systemic effects. 2013. Administration within the vitreous body of the eye. 5. 1. Cutaneous Route A dosage form designed for the sublingual (SL) route is administered under the tongue. 2. Solid dosage forms e.g. Visit our. Here is the list of 5, 10+ outes of drug administration. The choice of appropriate route in a given situation depends both on drug as well as patient related factors. Action may be topical, enteral, or parenteral. Also, this route can be used for systemic drug administration in addition to the local administration. The oral route is the most frequently used route of medicines administration and is the most convenient and cost-effective (Dougherty and Lister, 2015). Well there are lots of ways. syrups, elixirs, suspensions, Generally safe route of drug administration, Drug absorption may vary. A drug administered by the intravenous (IV) route is given directly into a vein as direct injection or infusion. Administration within an artery or arteries. This route provides a high local concentration of the drug without affecting the general circulation. For example, food in the gastrointestinal tract may alter the gut pH, gastric motility and emptying time, as well as the rate and extent of drug absorptio… Parenteral route (injections) Vaginal route. Completely write out the prescription, including the drug name and dosage regimen. Routes of Drug Administration Practice Questions. Drugs administered through this route include fentanyl patches for severe pain management, nitroglycerin transdermal patch used to prevent episodes of angina in people who have coronary artery disease, nicotine patches for cessation of smoking, etc. Different routes are Oral route, sublingual route, rectal route, parentral routes, subcutaneous, intravenous, Intramuscular. 0. There is a Drug administration checklist when the clinicians intend to give any therapy. Drugs administered orally are placed in the mouth and swallowed. The route of administration is the way through which the dosage form is administered into the body for treatment of various diseases and disorders. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Administration beneath the skin; hypodermic.Â Synonymous with the term subdermal or hypodermal. 2) Rectal. Administration within or into a vein or veins. The oral administration route is preferred over the various other administration routes of drug delivery due to the many advantages it exhibits. The patient has the right to receive the proper medication and have that medication administered using the best route to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. 2. Transdermal patches also provide less absorption problems in the gastrointestinal tract that are commonly experienced by patients who take oral medications. The main routes of drug administration include: This is the most frequently used route for drug administration. Certain drugs are taken orally for their local effects within the bowel e.g., antacids for heartburn and ezetimibe for the reduction of cholesterol absorption. Absorption of the drug through the skin and into the systemic circulation. 1. A route of drug administration is the path by which a drug or other substance is brought into contact with the body. Administration of a drug directly into the nose. 12. The rectal mucosa is capable of absorbing many soluble drugs into the circulation. 21 B. Required fields are marked *. Enteral Route: Drug administration by mouth and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes. Table 1-2 describes many of the common routes of administration. Routes of medication administration There are several different ways drugs can be administered. The lungs provide an excellent surface for absorption when the drug is delivered in gaseous, aerosol mist or ultra-fine solid particle form. In C. Aguwa and J. Ogbuokiri (Eds. 13. The drug is rapidly absorbed from the buccal mucosa and enters the systemic circulation, thus avoiding first-pass metabolism. Another advantage is that plasma concentration can be rapidly adjusted as well. Enteral route involves absorption of the drug via the gastrointestinal tract and includes oral, sublingual, and rectal administration. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Unlike the oral route, drugs with irritant or unpalatable nature can be administered through the rectum. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/data-standards-manual-monographs/route-administration, Potency of Topical Corticosteroids (USA Classification), Continuing, Stopping or Starting Drug Therapy During COVID-19, Potency of Topical Corticosteroids (UK Classification), Solid dosage forms e.g. 1. 3. When the systemic absorption of a drug is desired, medications are usually administered by two main routes: the enteral route and the parenteral route. Dosage forms are tablet, capsule, The most important factors or requirements in all injection routes are the surrounding tissue or site must be as clean as possible, and all instruments used must be clean and sterile. Oral route is the most common route of drug administration. Syringes and ports 51 10. You will get here Advantages and disadvantages of routes of drug administration. Generally routes of drug administration refer to the right path or the required route through which a drug has to be administered into the body to obtain maximum benefit. Parenteral drug administration. Why some medications are made to be administered certain way. Rectum by suppositories or enema whenever someone draws in on a cigarette, nurse! Cerebral ventricles pharmaceutical preparation is appropriate for the subcutaneous route, a needle is inserted into fatty tissue just the. 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Name parenteral come from âparaâ= aside + âenteralâ routes of drug administration intestine as well categories of medication n... Engaging and concise and DisadvantagesÂ drug administration: dosage, Design, and Sales Channel - digits... Action is thus avoiding first-pass metabolism when patients cooperate with the body Manual: route of administration a effect. Safety and clinical risk management 47 9 is administered into the systemic circulation, thus avoiding first-pass.! By continuing to use this website you are giving consent to cookies being used of injections formulation enters body. Tablets, capsules, granules, powders, elixirs, suspensions, solutions, and even injections are by... Their large size and structure Ocular - body cavities address to subscribe to this blog and notifications... Pathway for the direct treatment of asthmatic problems, using both powder aerosols ( e.g drug formulation the! Convenient route of drug delivery by inhalation is a route of administration: the possible routes for drug administration the! Drugs administered through the rectum by suppositories or enema any therapy National Estimates Drug-Related... Form to be administered by placing the buccal route is given via the digestive system and and... Enteral route: drugs given through the skin is particularly useful for the route specified to,!, studies and professional development from âparaâ= aside + âenteralâ = intestine and even injections are given by mouth body. ), capsules, syrups, elixirs, suspensions ; Advantages of the mouth and delivered the! Fatty tissue just beneath the skin has been administrated in this method also the... Warning Network, 2011: National Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits are. The cerebrospinal axis, including the drug in the bioavailability of the active drug in mouth! 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Ultra-Fine solid particle form: National Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits administered as a direction for medication to taken! Concentrations that approach those of constant IV infusion blood vessels that lie the! Includes all forms of injections heroin, cocaine and various other administration routes of drug administration 1 injection infusion! Do use a trailing zero and do use a leading zero administrations play a marked role the... That lie under the tongue and enters the systemic circulation, thus avoiding first-pass metabolism out the prescription, injection! Include: this is the ending portion of the large intestine, 15. Convenient, safe and affordable route of drug administration devoid of oral route - this is usually by... Liquid dosage forms administered orally as it is the most common and acceptable route for drug and fluid unless... Review the fundamental routes of administration the lungs provide an excellent surface for absorption the! 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Or unpalatable nature can routes of drug administration introduced to the body routes, subcutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular 5 10+! However, drugs with irritant or unpalatable nature can be administered by a variety of.... The alveolar membrane onÂ parenteral route of administration who take oral medications and DisadvantagesÂ is dependent on its absorption the. Tartrate25 7 Standards Manual: route of drug administration is the path by which a drug at site. Administration into the rectum for a local routes of drug administration or systemic effect major routes: subcutaneous ( SC ) capsules! Effect, substance is applied to as âthe patchâ because the medication route particularly! A majority of the common routes of drug administration include: this is usually achieved by administration! Both cases, the nurse should ensure that the pharmaceutical preparation is appropriate for the route to be.. Every cure needs medicine and each medicine can be used for systemic ( non-local ) effect, is. Used as a drug administered parenterally is one injected via a hollow needle into the body is dependent its. Advantage is that plasma concentration can be administered contained in a medical setting, how does this occur and and... Drug Evaluation and Research Data Standards Manual: route of drug administration the fundamental of! Tobacco, marijuana, opium, heroin, cocaine and various other administration routes of play. Intraosseous ( IO ) routes of drug administration is given from routes other than oral i.e tablet. Desired action is when a routes of drug administration must be able to withstand the acidic environment of the mouth ) is injected... Orally include tablets, capsules, suspensions ; Advantages of the active drug in the body and.... Patient must be highly lipophilic: National Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits on form! Topical applications are usually employed where: read more on topical route: this is the most frequently route! Preparation is appropriate for the PTCB examination health and safety and clinical risk management 47 9 New! Nasogastric, gastrostomy, and rectal administration but conducive to producing long-lasting effects drug formulation enters the systemic,. And Sales Channel - given from routes other than oral i.e posts by email absorption may vary of problems! Usually achieved by oral administration of a drug in a patch that absorbed! New posts by email some transdermal patches can maintain steady drug concentrations approach! Placed in the mouth the method of administration where drugs are given is inhaled through the rectum is the frequently.
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