The ascension of a new ruler restarted the year count. Each decan consisted of ten days, which yielded a 360-day year.  Otto E. Neugebauer noted that a 365-day year can be established by averaging a few decades of accurate observations of the Nile flood without any need for astronomical observations, although the great irregularity of the flood from year to year[a] and the difficulty of maintaining a sufficiently accurate Nilometer and record in prehistoric Egypt has caused other scholars to doubt that it formed the basis for the Egyptian calendar. Seasons of the Nile The Egyptians even built their calendar around the Nile River. The three seasons were - Akhet, Inundation or flood. , The days of the lunar month — known to the Egyptians as a "temple month" — were individually named and celebrated as stages in the life of the moon god, variously Thoth in the Middle Kingdom or Khonsu in the Ptolemaic era: "He ... is conceived ... on Psḏntyw; he is born on Ꜣbd; he grows old after Smdt". Akhet, or inundation, was considered the first season and was the time of the flooding of the Nile. The ancient Egyptian calendar was divided into 12 months of 30 days each, covering 3 seasons that corresponded to parts of the agricultural growing cycle. Season: Innundation Netjer of the Season: Hapi: Egyptian Calendar: Gregorian Calendar : Festival/Celebration: 1 : July 19: Month of Thuthi begins. The Decans. Contemporary Egyptian farmers, like their ancient predecessors, divide the year into three seasons: winter, summer, and inundation. Dates for common people were written with the number of the month in the season first. The only unit of time that was larger than a year was the reign of a king. [p] A recent development is the discovery that the 30-day month of the Mesopotamian calendar dates as late as the Jemdet Nasr Period (late 4th-millennium BC), a time Egyptian culture was borrowing various objects and cultural features from the Fertile Crescent, leaving open the possibility that the main features of the calendar were borrowed in one direction or the other as well.. The classic understanding of the Sothic cycle relies, however, on several potentially erroneous assumptions. A civil lunar year, not tied to Sirius, was added every four years to account for the extra day needed to balance the solar calendar to the Egyptian calendar. Every year ends with additional 5 days (epagomenal days) which gives 365 days in total.  The lunar calendar divided the month into four weeks, reflecting each quarter of the lunar phases. , A second lunar calendar is attested by a demotic astronomical papyrus dating to sometime after 144 CE which outlines a lunisolar calendar operating in accordance with the Egyptian civil calendar according to a 25 year cycle. Egyptian scholars were involved with the establishment of Julius Caesar's reform of the Roman calendar, although the Roman priests initially misapplied its formula and—by counting inclusively—added leap days every three years instead of every four. Its months were Sf-Bdt, Redh Wer, Redh Neds, and Renwet. Proyet or emergence was the next season following Akhet. So they introduced acivil calendar containing twelve mo… A month was 30 days long on the Egyptian solar calendar. Since 25 BCE, when the calendar was reformed to include leap-days, Tybi has been in roughly January. This was a very good thing. They divided their calendar up into three seasons. As early as the reign of Djer (c. 3000 BC, Dynasty I), yearly records were being kept of the flood's high-water mark. The third season - was called Shomu, which means low water. These 10-day weeks were called decans, meaning groups of ten.. Decans were based on astronomical observations of small constellations of stars that would have a heliacal rising every 10 days. The rising of each group indicated a new sidereal day. The Egyptian calendar was broken down as follows: Depiction of an Egyptian hieroglyphic calendar. When the flood waters receded, they left behind fertile soil. Fall or Autumn 4. , Parker and others have argued for its development into an observational and then calculated lunisolar calendar which used a 30 day intercalary month every two to three years to accommodate the lunar year's loss of about 11 days a year relative to the solar year and to maintain the placement of the heliacal rising of Sirius within its twelfth month.  Perfect observation of Sirius's actual behavior during the cycle—including its minor shift relative to the solar year—would produce a period of 1457 years; observational difficulties produce a further margin of error of about two decades. )… The civil year comprised exactly 365 days,[q] divided into 12 months of 30 days each and an intercalary month of five days, were celebrated as the birthdays of the gods Osiris, Horus, Set, Isis, and Nephthys. There were three seasons in the Egyptian calendar: Akhet. The Ancient Egyptian calendar was originally based on twelve lunar months, grouped into three seasons of four months each. 1854, Henry Browne, “S.  It has been suggested that during the Nineteenth Dynasty and the Twentieth Dynasty the last two days of each decan were usually treated as a kind of weekend for the royal craftsmen, with royal artisans free from work.  Because the exact time of morning considered to begin the Egyptian day remains uncertain and there is no evidence that any method other than observation was used to determine the beginnings of the lunar months prior to the 4th century BCE, there is no sure way to reconstruct exact dates in the lunar calendar from its known dates. Since this didn't account for all the days in the year, the Egyptians added an intercalary month that occurred outside of the regular calendar year. After the introduction of astrology, the rise of the decans and the stellar occurrences indicated the onset of diseases and the timing for their cures. It differs only in its era, which is dated from the ascension of the Roman emperor Diocletian. Each year was comprised of three, four-month seasons, which were named after significant events related to their agrarian lifestyle. It was considered to be the power behind the sun. In later sources, these were distinguished as "first", "middle", and "last". A convention of modern Egyptologists is to number the months consecutively using Roman numerals. [y] The return of Sirius to the night sky varies by about a day per degree of latitude, causing it to be seen 8–10 days earlier at Aswan than at Alexandria, a difference which causes Rolf Krauss to propose dating much of Egyptian history decades later than the present consensus. Its months were Sf-Bdt, Redh Wer, Redh Neds, and Renwet. A tablet from the reign of the First Dynasty pharaoh Djer (c. 3000 BC) was once thought to indicate that the Egyptians had already established a link between the heliacal rising of Sirius (Ancient Egyptian: Spdt or Sopdet, "Triangle"; Greek: Σῶθις, Sôthis) and the beginning of their year, but more recent analysis has questioned whether the tablet's picture refers to Sirius at all. These finally evolved into the New Kingdom months, which in turn gave rise to the Hellenized names that were used for chronology by Ptolemy in his Almagest and by others. 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