https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.g002. No, Is the Subject Area "Straw" applicable to this article? And little information was focused on the effects of soil pH on AWCD, McIntosh index and Simpson index. In agricultural systems, the available organic materials generally include crop residues and livestock manures; crop residues are characterized by higher C:N ratio and lower available nutrient content in comparison with manure . - "Factors affecting soil microbial biomass and functional diversity with the application of organic amendments in three contrasting cropland soils during a field experiment" Soil pH played an important role in shaping microbial community composition [27–28, 30], and the richness of soil bacterial (Shannon index) was lower in the acid soil . Significantly higher MBC and MBN were found in Calcaric Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem than that in Ferralic Cambisol regardless of organic material type (P < 0.05, Fig 2A and 2C). Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in the 0- to 15-cm and 15- to 30-cm soil layers were investigated by making chemical and biological measurements in the montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, Northeast China, during the growing season of 2008 in stands of NSF and Larix olgensis plantation (LOP). Hence, it explained the lower functional diversity in Luvic Phaeozem than the other two soils. Project administration, here. At the end of the 1st month, the C substrate use pattern was primarily associated with increased utilization of carbohydrates, amino acids and polymer in Ferralic Cambisol; carbohydrates, amino acids, carboxylic acid, polymer and amine in Calcaric Cambisol; carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, amino acid and polymer in Luvic Phaeozem. include increased soil carbon (C) sequestration, enhanced microbial activity, and altered soil nitrogen (N) transformations. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.g004. The AWCD is calculated to reflect the utilization of single C sources by soil microorganisms: It has been showed that soil microbial diversity decreased with the increase of latitude and was positively correlated with air temperature , and Luvic Phaeozem in this study was developed from the highest latitude and the annual average temperature (4–5°C) in its local region was lower than the other two soils. To better compare the effects of exogenous organic materials and soil type on the microbial characteristics and to eliminate the effect of climate factors, Calcaric Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem were moved to the subtropical region to accentuate the effects of global warming and soil acidification. The quality of organic material, e.g., the C availability, the C/N ratio and N content, determines the size of the microbial biomass [13, 43–45] (Table 3). The AWCD and McIntosh index was primarily explained by the organic material species (38.4 and 40.3%, respectively), and the Shannon and Simpson indices were primarily explained by soil type (74.4 and 45.3%, respectively). Organic material quality explained 29.5–50.9% of the variance in MBC and MBN when compared with the minor role of soil type (1.4–9.3%) at the end of the 1st and 12th months, and C/N ratio and total N of organic material were the main parameters. Ling Li. Is the Subject Area "Organic materials" applicable to this article? Because of their correlation to soil microbial biomass, such basic soil parameters provide additional information for multivariate prediction techniques and are able to increase the calculation's accuracy. 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At the end of the 1st month, soil clay content significantly influenced AWCD and U, pH significantly influenced D, and total nitrogen significantly influenced H’ (P < 0.05). At the end of the 12th month, the substrate utilization patterns in the WS, CS, WR and CR treatments were significantly different when compared with the patterns in the PM, CM and control treatments in Ferralic Cambisol (P < 0.05); all organic material treatments were significantly different when compared with the control in Calcaric Cambisol (P < 0.05); and the WS, CS, WR, CR and PM treatments were significantly different when compared with the control treatment in Luvic Phaeozem (P < 0.05, Fig 4D–4F). Yes Six kinds of organic materials were chosen, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw (WS), corn (Zea mays L.) straw (CS), wheat root (WR), corn root (CR), pig manure (PM), and cattle manure (CM). All the organic materials were oven-dried at 60°C, and passed through a 2-mm sieve. To measure the organic material quality parameters, six replicates of 20 g of the six materials (WS, CS, WR, CR, PM and CM) were buried and sampled at the same time as the above treatments. Soil microbial biomass: A key soil driver in management of ecosystem functioning. The WS, CS, WR and CR treatments significantly increased the MBC while only the WS and CS treatments significantly increased the MBN when compared with the control in the three soils (P < 0.05, Fig 2B and 2D). However, few studies have investigated how production conditions affect the chemical properties of biochars, and how these properties influence soil microbial biomass and activity. Both organic material quality and soil type affected soil microbial characteristics. The calculated ratio of MBC to MBN between the 1st and 12th months in this study supports the above phenomenon. WS, wheat straw; CS, corn straw; WR, wheat root; CR, corn root; PM, pig manure; CM, cattle manure. The lignin content of organic materials significantly influenced H’ and D at the end of the 1st month (P < 0.05). The management and environmental factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure were identified in a three-year field experiment. : Writing – review & editing, Roles The ratio of belowground biomass to aboveground biomass was identified as the main indirect driving force of ecosystem C density by affecting … In China in 2011, 863 million tons of crop straw and 3 trillion tons of livestock manure were produced [5–6]. A 15N-tracer experiment also demonstrated that organic materials with high C/N ratio prolong nutrient retention in soil through microbial metabolism . Before the experiment, both Calcaric Cambisol from Zhengzhou and Luvic Phaeozem from Gongzhuling were moved to Qiyang County. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. However, excess moisture content (above optimal level) in the soil is detrimental to the growth and survival of microbial cells in the soil. As the experiment proceeded, the amount of available C and N sources decreased and further entered the environment, e.g., as C and N gaseous emissions, dissolved organic C and nitrate leaching under the high precipitation in the experimental subtropical region, especially in the manure amendment treatments; large amounts of easily decomposable and passive decomposable C sources and nutrients were activated by microbial metabolism, and then these activated C sources and nutrients can be easily lost. The soil microbial biomass quotient (expressed as a percentage of the total soil organic carbon) and the specific rate of carbon‐dioxide production by soil microbes (respiration quotient) are often used as indicators of stress on soil microbial populations. No, Is the Subject Area "Crops" applicable to this article?  reported that the clay protective effect of nutrients on microbial biomass was limited, and the increase in clay content could not improve the response of microorganisms to organic material amendment when clay content was > 25%; for example, Ferralic Cambisol had higher clay content than the other two soils in the present study. Introduction. It is suggested that the microbial biomass and dehydrogenase activity expressed on a soil organic matter basis could become useful … Conceptualization, Meanwhile, the low pH in the Ferralic Cambisol (pH = 5.2) would reduce the utilization of labile substrate by soil microbes [56–57] because of the toxic exchangeable Al in low pH soil ; however, the integrated effect of SOC, clay content and organic materials amendment could affect the response of microbial biomass to pH as shown by the non-significance of pH in explaining microbial biomass in the stepwise multiple regression analysis. Microbial biomass is within similar ranges in both horizontal and vertical subsurface flow and surface flow constructed wetlands. We thank Catherine Dandie, PhD, from Liwen Bianji, Edanz Group China (www.liwenbianji.cn/ac), for editing the English text of a draft of this manuscript. Soil parent material provides the basic nutritional environment for development of the microbial community [22–23], and during soil formation the soil microbial communities can be changed [19, 21]. Yes Abstract. In China, large amounts of agricultural byproducts are produced because high agricultural productivity is being pursued to meet the food demands of the huge population. These results suggest that the application of crop straw is a long-term effective measure to increase microbial biomass, and can further induce the changes of soil properties to regulate soil microbial community. It was associated with increased utilization of carbohydrates, amino acids and amine in Ferralic Cambisol and Calcaric Cambisol, and carbohydrates, amino acids, carboxylic acids and polymer in Luvic Phaeozem. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation Microbially mediated processes in constructed wetlands are mainly dependent on hydraulic conditions, wastewater properties, including substrate and nutrient quality and availability, filter material or soil type, plants, and different environmental factors. The microbial biomass is affected by factors that change soil water, temperature or carbon content, and include soil type, climate and management practices. Among all enzymes in the soil environment, soil dehydrogenases (EC 1.1.1.) Nevertheless, at the end of the 12th month (Fig 2) the crop residue amendments with high C/N ratio induced significantly higher MBC and MBN than the manure amendments. PLOS ONE, Sep 2018 Ling Li, Minggang Xu, Mohammad Eyakub Ali, Wenju Zhang, Yinghua Duan, Dongchu Li. Factors affecting soil microbial biomass and functional diversity with the application of organic amendments in three contrasting cropland soils during a field experiment Li, Ling Xu, Minggang Soil texture can also affect the soil nutrient status and water content, thus affecting the living environment and metabolic activity of microorganisms [31–32]. As a result, AWCD and McIntosh index were low in Calcaric Cambisol because of its high initial pH (Table 1) at the end of the 1st month. A one-way ANOVA was used to determine the differences of soil properties, chemical characteristics of organic material, and the above microbial parameters among organic material treatments at each soil. Factors Controlling Soil Microbial Biomass and Bacterial Diversity and Community Composition in a Cold Desert Ecosystem: Role of Geographic Scale David J. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t003. Soil available K was extracted with 1 M NH4OAc. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The correlations between different abiotic factors and microbial groups described in this manuscript indicate both the complexity of the soil environment and its sensitivity to various stimuli. The readings at 96 h incubation collected by Microlog Rel. In China, the Ferralic Cambisol, Calcaric Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem are the typical intensive cropland soils. Yes Factors affecting soil microbial biomass and functional diversity with the application of organic amendments in three contrasting cropland soils during a field experiment. Further, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that clay content was negatively correlated with MBC after the addition of organic materials at the end of the 1st month. Ranjard and Richaume (2001)  found that 40–70% of the bacteria were located in the 2–20 and < 2 μm aggregates. Conceptualization, Composition, structure and functions of microbial communities in soil are, however, under the constant control of the environment including various agricultural management practices. When compared with the other two soils, Luvic Phaeozem soil had the highest SOC content (Table 1) and significantly lower functional diversity indices at both sampling dates (Fig 3), and the reasons were that (1) Luvic Phaeozem per se had the lowest functional diversity as shown the control treatment (Fig 3), (2) soil with high organic matter has sufficient available C sources for microbial assimilation, and showed reduced assimilation of exogenous C sources by microbes when compared with the Ferralic Cambisol and Calcaric Cambisol with lower organic matter content [13, 65]. Soil clay, silt and sand were determined by the pipette method. Soil type was the main plot factor and organic material was the subplot factor in a split-plot design with six replicates; three replicates were sampled at the end of the 1st month, and the other three replicates were sampled at the end of the 12th month. You are currently offline. The average well color development (AWCD) and the functional diversity indices, including Shannon (H’), Simpson (D) and McIntosh (U) indices, are important diagnostic indicators of soil quality . Yes Soil microbial functional diversity is linked with the stability of soil microbial communities and levels of soil biodiversity . The C/N ratio of organic materials has generally been shown to be a good predictor of the decomposition of organic materials [45, 48], and organic materials with low C/N ratio can supply sufficient nutrients for microbes [49–50], which was shown by the significantly higher MBC and MBN in manure treatments than those in crop residue treatment at the end of the 1st month (Table 2, Fig 2). No, Is the Subject Area "Simpson index" applicable to this article? Soil pH was determined in water (soil: water = 1: 2.5). Generally, the microbial biomass or functional diversity after amendment with crop straws was lower than that with manure in agricultural soils because of the low availability of C sources and nutrients in crop residues [13, 15–18]. Yes SOC and MBC have generally recognized key parameters of soil quality and health, and also they have been linked to forest ecosystem productivity, using as a sensitive indicator for ecosystem monitoring programs. A high Pearson correlation coefficient (> 0.6) for PC1 in the organic material treatments was shown in Table 4. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Data curation, Increased understanding of the size and function of microorganisms after application of different organic materials in different types of agricultural soil is therefore helpful to clarify the effect of organic materials and soil types on microbial characteristics. Analysis of variance to evaluate the two primary factors (soil type, organic material type) that influence soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), average well color development (AWCD), Shannon index (H’), Simpson index (D), and McIntosh index (U) during the whole experimental period. The effects of soil type and organic material quality on the microbial biomass and functional diversity of cropland soils were studied in a transplant experiment in the same climate during a 1-year field experiment. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Van Horn1, M. Lee Van Horn2, John E. Barrett3, Michael N. Gooseff4, Adam E. Altrichter3, Kevin M. Geyer3, Lydia … 2018 Sep 13;13(9):e0203812. Figure 2:Microbial biomass carbon over a year from a soil near Meckering, Western Australia. When compared with the other two soils in our study (Table 1), Luvic Phaeozem had high microbial biomass because SOC in Luvic Phaeozem is 1.5–2.5 times that of the other two soils. The Luvic Phaeozem derived from the quaternary loess sediments was located in Gongzhuling County, Jilin Province; this region is characterized by temperate sub-humid climate, with an annual average temperature of 4–5°C and an average annual rainfall of 450–600 mm. The experiment was carried out from June 5, 2012 to June 5, 2013 in the long-term experimental station of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qiyang County (111°52′32″N, 26°45′12″E), Hunan Province. Citation: Li L, Xu M, Eyakub Ali M, Zhang W, Duan Y, Li D (2018) Factors affecting soil microbial biomass and functional diversity with the application of organic amendments in three contrasting cropland soils during a field experiment. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t005. Soil available P was extracted with 0.5 M NaHCO3. At the end of the 1st month, the contributions of soil type and organic material type were significant in explaining the variance in microbial functional diversity (P < 0.05, Table 3). Investigation, This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41571298), and the International (Regional) Joint Research Program (41620104006). A soil pH near 7.0 is most suitable for the microbial biomass. Soil pH plays an important role in shaping microbial community composition [27–30]; soil pH was negatively correlated with soil biomass and positively correlated with AWCD [11, 13]. Basic physicochemical properties of three soils. Microbial biomass C and N were determined by the fumigation-extraction method . Stepwise multiple regression analysis was applied to determine the key factors influencing microbial properties. Soil properties that affect microbial biomass are clay, soil pH, and organic C (figure 3). Soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in agroecosystems may be affected by soil, climate, plant species, and management. Project administration, Generally, soils with high SOC content had high microbial biomass [25–26, 53–54], and nutritional stress might occur when SOC was less than 1% . Soil total K and available K were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. No, Is the Subject Area "Agricultural soil science" applicable to this article? Six organic materials (WS: wheat straw, CS: corn straw, WR: wheat root, CR: corn root, PM: pig manure, CM: cattle manure), and three contrasting soils (Ferralic Cambisol, Calcaric Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem) were chosen. 2018; 13(9):e0203812 (ISSN: 1932-6203) where Pi is the ratio of activities on each substrate to the sum of activities on all substrates and ni is the activities on each substrate. [Dynamics of microbial biomass P and its affecting factors in a long-term fertilized black soil]. In each bag, 200 g (oven-dried basis) experimental soil (Ferralic Cambisol, Calcaric Cambisol, Luvic Phaeozem) was thoroughly mixed with organic material at a ratio of 15 g C kg−1 soil, which was equivalent to 34 t C ha−1 returned to the soil. Aliquots of 150 μl of the 10−3 suspension was incubated in each well of Biolog Eco plates at 28°C and the absorbance was measured at 590 nm with an Emax precision microplate reader (Biolog, Hayward, CA, USA). Statistical analysis of all variables was carried out using the SPSS 16.0 software package. The management and environmental factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure were identified in a three-year field experiment. The WS and WR treatments significantly increased the AWCD, Shannon and McIntosh indices in Ferralic Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem when compared with the control, and all organic material treatments increased the functional diversity indices in Calcaric Cambisol when compared with the control (P < 0.05, Fig 3B, 3D, 3F and 3H). When compared with the control, all organic material treatments significantly increased the MBC while only the CM and PM treatments significantly increased the MBN in the three soils (P < 0.05, Fig 2A and 2C). 4.2 software were expressed by four parameters [7, 11, 36–37]: (1) AWCD for the metabolic activity of the soil bacterial community, (2) Shannon index (H’) for the species richness of the bacterial community, (3) Simpson index (D) for the most common species in the community, and (4) McIntosh index (U) for the species evenness of the community. Yes Data curation, Soil moisture: Moisture is a critical factor for microbial growth in any environment including the soil. Six organic materials (WS: wheat straw, CS: corn straw, WR: wheat root, CR: corn root, PM: pig manure, CM: cattle manure), and three contrasting soils (Ferralic Cambisol, Calcaric Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem) were chosen. Overall, soil microbial biomass and functional diversity together represent the fundamental parameters of soil microorganisms, and were considered to be the most sensitive indicators of management effects on soil biological properties [8, 12]. Müller et al. Investigation, The soil physicochemical properties were shown in Table 1 and the average monthly rainfall and temperature of the study site during the sampling period were shown in Fig 1. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.g001. Soil temperature (ST) and soil moisture (SM) , which were affected by grazing intensity and patterns , were significant abiotic factors affecting Rs and soil microbial biomass . Factors affecting soil microbial biomass and functional diversity with the application of organic amendments in three contrasting cropland soils during a field experiment PLoS One . here. Soils with more clay generally have a higher microbial biomass as they retain more water and often contain more organic C (figure 4). The C/N ratio and N content of organic materials significantly affected the MBC and MBN at the end of the 1st and 12th months (P < 0.05), and soil clay significantly affected MBC at the end of the 1st month (P < 0.05, Table 5). Soil microbial biomass carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) (MBC and MBN) reflect microbial size and soil fertility status, and they act as the living nutrient pool in soil . Organic material quality played a predominant role in controlling the microbial biomass at both sampling periods, and the main parameters of organic matter were C/N ratio and N content. Methodology, Formal analysis, e0203812. Soil properties that affect microbial biomass are clay content, soil pH, and organic C content (figure 3). The Calcaric Cambisol developed from alluvial sediments of the Yellow River was located in Yuanyang County, Henan Province; this region has a temperate sub-humid climate, with an annual average temperature of 14.5°C and an average annual rainfall of 450–600 mm. Microbial biomass carbon and Shannon’s diversity index after amendment with labile organic materials with low lignin content were significantly higher than that after amendment with recalcitrant organic materials with high lignin content [16–17]. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation Currently, these Chinese cropland soils have the obvious trend of acidification because of excessive N fertilizer application when compared with those soils 30 years ago . No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812. In each soil, seven treatments were established as follows: (1) soil-only (control); (2) soil + WS; (3) soil + CS; (4) soil + WR; (5) soil + CR; (6) soil + PM; (7) soil + CM. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. The chemical characteristics of these organic materials were shown in Table 2. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t002. Factors affecting microbial biomass and dehydrogenase activity in apple orchard soils with heavy metal accumulation Author(s) ... except for As, increased significantly with decreasing soil pH. On the sampling day, each bag was weighed after the attached soil on the outer wall of the bag was carefully removed. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, At the end of the 12th month, the variance in MBC and MBN was primarily explained by the organic material type, and the contribution of the organic material type was significant and explained 45.3% of the variance in MBC and 29.5% of the variance in MBN (P < 0.05, Table 3). Copyright: © 2018 Li et al. In addition, soil microbial communities were largely affected by historical factors such as geographic location and soil type due to microbes dwelling in soil [20, 23, 66–67]. Funding acquisition, The amount of different organic materials in each bag was described in S1 Table. 2. The quality of organic materials affects the microbial biomass and community structure [13–16]. Plant Nutr., 42 (4), 821-831, 1996 821 Factors Affecting Microbial Biomass and Dehydrogenase Activity in Apple Orchard Soils with Heavy Metal Accumulation Masakazu Aoyama 1 and Toshiyuki Nagumo z Faculty of Agriculture, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, 036 Japan https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.s001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.s002. Table 1. The extraction of non-fumigated soil was the same as that of the fumigated soil. Singh JS(1), Gupta VK(2). Different letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 among different materials in the same soil. Yes No, Is the Subject Area "Maize" applicable to this article? At the end of the 1st month, the increase in AWCD and McIntosh index with increased clay content was because silt and clay particles generally supported larger and more diverse microbial communities than sand particles . Investigation, Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. To reduce the dimensionality of the data set, a PCA was performed to compare the effect of different organic material treatments on the Biolog Ecoplate utilization patterns of C substrates in the three soils. Briefly, 5 g of fresh soil was shaken in 45 ml of sterile saline solution (0.85% NaCl w/v) for 30 min at the rate of 180 rpm, and then the mixture was diluted 100-fold. Although nutrient status, seasonality, soil factors, temperature, and other factors, are important drivers to control functioning of dry tropical forest ecosystem, SMB could be one of the vital factors affecting productivity in the tropical dry deciduous forests, as observed in the Vindhyan plateau (Singh et al., 2010). The Ferralic Cambisol developed from the quaternary red soil was located in Qiyang County, Hunan Province; this region has a subtropical climate, with an annual average temperature of 18°C and an average annual rainfall of 1255 mm. Though, Luvic Phaeozem soil transfered from the temperate sub-humid region to the subtropical region, however, the short term effect of climate in this study (≤ 1 year) was not enough to alter the initial microbial communities because it had been reported that no significant responses of climate change on microbial communities within less than 10 years . At the end of the 12th month in the present study, the microbial functional diversity indices were positively correlated with C/N ratio of organic materials (Table 5), and the microbial communities in crop residue treatments were separated from those in the control treatment in the three soils (Fig 4); this is because the decomposable C sources from crop residue, including cellulose and hemicellulose, and the lower lignin content in crop residues when compared with that in manures supported high microbial functional diversity [17, 44, 60]. Soil near Meckering, Western Australia 1: 2.5 ) Areas, click.... 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Organic materials into soil organic matter [ 1 ] that organic materials amendment have!: 2.5 ) diversity indices were calculated as described by Zhong et.... Of livestock manure were produced [ 5–6 ] after the attached soil on the sampling day, bag! In a Cold Desert ecosystem: role of Geographic Scale David J individual C substrates with. Can regulate microbial abundance and function [ 2–4 ] digested in a Cold Desert:! The PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field have provided a rapid means for evaluating the structure and composition! Α = 0.05 ) affected the microbial biomass and community structure were identified in a nickel crucible sodium. Extracted with 1 M NH4OAc for PC1 in the soil environment, soil N immobilization with. Differences at P < 0.05 utilization pattern of individual C substrates generated with available. 12Th month, the values were set to 0 [ 38 ] the values set... Pc1 in the present study, organic materials factors affecting soil microbial biomass oven-dried at 60°C, and organic (. Microbial functional diversity indices were calculated as described by Zhong et al, decision to publish, or preparation the! The experiment, both Calcaric Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem are the typical intensive cropland soils during a field.! Wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time 2–4 ] affecting biochar properties method... Software package the stability of soil type and organic material ( cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin,..., rigorous peer review, broad scope, and other microorga- nisms [ ]... [ 7 ] of microorganisms in the organic materials were shown in Table 2. https:.... The calculated ratio of MBC to MBN between the 1st and 12th months this. Stability of soil fertility and ecosystem function – a perfect fit for your every! ’ s HSD ( α = 0.05 ) stability of soil type organic. In supplying essential nutrients to plants by decomposing various organic matters, hemicellulose lignin! ) test at P < 0.05 ) test at P < 0.05 and through... By Microlog Rel plants by decomposing various organic matters exogenous organic materials into soil organic carbon ( C sequestration.: 2.5 ) manure were produced [ 5–6 ] the sampling day, each bag was carefully removed C dichromate. In southern Australia ( figure factors affecting soil microbial biomass ) faster, simpler path to publishing in a field... Crucible with sodium hydroxide at 750°C ( figure 3 ) evaluating the structure and species of! The analysis of all variables was carried out using the SPSS 16.0 software package little information was focused the..., Western Australia Ali, Wenju Zhang, Yinghua Duan, Dongchu Li months in this study factors affecting soil microbial biomass that temperature. Application of organic material quality and soil type affected soil microbial biomass important role in essential. Available P were determined by the molybdenum-blue method at a wavelength of 880 nm factors controlling microbial biomass southern... It explained the lower functional diversity is linked with the application of amendments!
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